Orbital Characteristics of Earth

Orbital Characteristics

Perihelion: 147,098,074 km, 0.9832898912 AE
Aphelion: 152,097,701 km, 1.0167103335 AE
Semi-major axis: 149,597,887.5 km, 1.0000001124 AE
Eccentricity: 0.016710219
Orbital period: 365.256366 days
Synodic period:
Average orbital speed: 29.783 km/s
Mean anomaly:
Inclination: 1°34'43.3"
Longitude of ascending node: 348.73936°
Argument of perihelion: 114.20783°

Satellites/moons: 1 (Moon)

Physical Characteristics of Earth

Physical Characteristics

Equatorial radius: 6,378.1 km
Flattening: 0.0033528
Surface area: 510,072,000 km2
Volume: 1.0832073×1012 km3
Mass: 5.9736×1024 kg
Mean density: 5.5153 g/cm3
Equatorial surface gravity: 9.780327 m/s2
Escape velocity: 11.186 km/s
Sidereal rotation period: 0.99726968 d Earth days, 23h 56m 4.100s Earth hours
Axial tilt : 23.439281°
Albedo: 0.367
Average surface temperatures: 185/331 K, -88/58 °C, -126/136 °F
Apparent magnitude:
Angular diameter:
The Atmosphere of Earth

The Atmosphere

  • 78.08% Nitrogen (N2)
  • 20.95% Oxygen (O2)
  • 0.93% Argon
  • 0.038% Carbon dioxide (CO2)
  • ca. 1% water vapor (H2O)
  • 18.18 ppm Neon
  • 5.24 ppm Helium
  • 1.745 ppm Methane (CH4)
  • 1.14 ppm Krypton
  • 0.55 ppm Hydrogen (H2)

    Earth images:

    back to main page

  • NASA Breaking News

    Washington Students to Speak with NASA Astronaut on Space Station Today
    Students from nine school districts in Port Orchard, Washington, will speak with a NASA astronaut living, working and doing research aboard the International Space Station at 1:10 p.m. EST today.

    New Space Policy Directive Calls for Human Expansion Across Solar System
    President Donald Trump is sending astronauts back to the Moon.

    NASA Provides Coverage of Today’s Space Policy Directive Signing
    NASA Television and the agency’s website will provide live coverage of the Space Policy Directive 1 signing ceremony at the White House at 3 p.m. EST today.

    NASA Hosts Media Teleconference to Announce Latest Kepler Discovery
    NASA will host a media teleconference at 1 p.m. EST Thursday, Dec. 14, to announce the latest discovery made by its planet-hunting Kepler space telescope.

    NASA Selects Three Companies to Develop 'FabLab' Prototypes
    NASA is taking the next step in the development of a space-based, on-demand fabrication capability by partnering with three U.S. companies, under NASA’s Next Space Technologies for Exploration Partnerships (NextSTEP) program, to create prototypes.

    NASA Highlights Jupiter, Search for Life at American Geophysical Union
    NASA researchers will present new findings on a wide range of Earth and space science topics at the annual meeting of the American Geophysical Union, Dec. 11-15 in New Orleans. NASA-related briefings will stream live on the agency’s website.

    The Moon Shines Brightly Among NASA’s 2017 Highlights
    The Moon became a key focus point for NASA in 2017, whether it was blocking out the Sun during one of the most-viewed events in U.S. history, or reinvigorating the agency’s human space exploration plans.

    NASA Television to Air Launch of Next Space Station Resupply Mission
    NASA commercial cargo provider SpaceX is now targeting its 13th commercial resupply services mission to the International Space Station for no earlier than 11:46 a.m. EST Tuesday, Dec. 12.

    NASA Television Coverage Set for Space Station Crew Landing, Launch
    Three crew members on the International Space Station are scheduled to end their mission and return to Earth on Thursday, Dec. 14, just days before another three space travelers begin their mission. Live coverage will air on NASA Television and the agency’s website.

    NASA Invites Media to Orion Spacecraft Parachute Test in Arizona
    NASA is inviting media to attend a test of parachutes for the agency’s Orion spacecraft Wednesday, Dec. 13, at the U.S. Army’s Yuma Proving Ground in Arizona.